# All Matter Is Composed Of

The Atom

All matter composed of small particles called - Chemistry - TopperLearning.com t1yfjess. Matteris everything around you. Atomsand compounds are all made of very small parts of matter. Those atoms go on to build the things you see and touch every day. Matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space (it has volume). : 21 All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, 'matter' generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass. If you define matter as mass that takes up space, then that's true. Atoms are the basic building blocks for all solids, liquids,and gases. Even you are made up of nothing but atoms. Cleverly arranged into long molecules, but still atoms. All commonly observable matter is composed of up quarks, down quarks and electrons. Owing to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, which include baryons (such as protons and neutrons) and mesons, or in quark–gluon plasmas.

2. ## All atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties. Atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties.

3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.

5. ## In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.

We now know that atoms of the same element can have different masses and are calledisotopes. Isotopes have a different number of neutrons than the 'average' atom of an element.

We have also discovered the possibility ofatomic fission; splitting the atom (Hiroshima & Nagasaki).

4. ## Atoms are the units of chemical change.http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/anderson/chem121/modatomc.htm

Def: An atom is the smallest unit of a substance that retains the properties ofthat substance.

Atoms are composed of three types of particles:

 Particles Symbol Charge Location Protons p+ Positive charge Found in the nucleus Neutrons N0 Neutral (no) charge Found in the nucleus Electrons e- Negative charge Found orbiting the nucleus

Nucleus – The positively charged central region of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons and containing almost all of the mass of the atom. More simply the nucleus is the “middle part” of an atom defined by an imaginary boundary separating it from the orbiting electrons.

Rutherford's view of the atom (1914)

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/R/Rutherfords_experiment_and_atomic_model.html

Bohr models of various atoms. (1920)

http://www.clickandlearn.org/Gr9_Sci/atoms/modelsoftheatom.html

Quantum model of a sodium atom. (Current)

Atomic Number- Determined by the number of protons

Atomic Mass Unit- mass of one proton or one neutron (they are about the same)

Atomic Mass- Mass of an atom: determined by adding the protons and neutrons
(Actually this number is an average; re. isotopes)

Atomic Number
Atomic Symbol
Atomic Mass

The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons
p+ = e-

The mass number minus the atomic number equals the number of neutrons
mass # - atomic # = N0

Orbital- three-dimensional region about the nucleus in which a particular electron can be found.

Quantum numbers- numbers that specify the properties of atomic orbitals and of their electrons.

Principal Quantum number- indicates the main energy levels surrounding a nucleus, sometimes referred to as shells or orbitals. (1,2,3,4,5,6,7) Larger numbers are farther away from the nucleus and electrons found here have more energy.

Orbital quantum number- indicates the shape of an orbital. Often referred to as sublevels or subshells. (s,p,d,f in order of increasing energy)

s orbitals can hold 2 electrons
p orbitals can hold 6 electrons
d orbitals can hold 10 electrons
f orbitals can hold 14 electrons

Magnetic quantum number- indicates the orientation of an orbital about the nucleus. (x,y.z coordinates)

Spin quantum number- indicates the spin of an electron (+1/2, or -1/2)

Atoms are mostly empty space. If the nucleus of an atom had the diameter of a dime, the outer edge of the atom would be about 50 yards away.

If a proton were enlarged to the size of the head of a pin, the outer edge of the atom would be about 100 meters away.

#### This is a very distorted model of the atom.

If this picture were drawn to scale:
And if the protons and neutrons were a centimeter in diameter;

Then the electrons would be less than the diameter of a hair; and
The entire atom's diameter would be greater than the length of 30 football fields!

If an atom were as large as a football stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a small ladybug crawling across the 50-yard line. In spite of this size difference, virtually an of the mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus. One electron, which has a negative charge, weighs only 1/1836 as much as the lightest of all nuclei, that of the hydrogen atom (proton).

In addition, all the particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons) are constantly in motion.

Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment

### What Is The Definition Of Matter

http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/timeline//pages/1911.html

1911- Ernest Rutherford publishes his atomic theory describing the atom as having a central positive nucleus surrounded by negative orbiting electrons. This model suggested that most of the mass of the atom was contained in the small nucleus, and that the rest of the atom was mostly empty space. Rutherford came to this conclusion following the results of his famous gold foil experiment. This experiment involved the firing of radioactive particles through minutely thin metal foils (notably gold) and detecting them using screens coated with zinc sulfide (a scintillator). Rutherford found that although the vast majority of particles passed straight through the foil approximately 1 in 8000 were deflected leading him to his theory that most of the atom was made up of 'empty space'.

What percentage of the volume of an atom is just empty space?

Take an online Element Quiz

If you know of some information you think should be included on this page, please let me know!!

Interactive Periodic Charts:

go on to learn about theInteraction of Matter

Sources:

http://nwscc.cc.al.us/distance/bio103/topic3/3/sld001.htm A good PowerPoint presentation about atoms

http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/properties/gcse.html#topA SIMPLE VIEW OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE

http://www.biologylessons.sdsu.edu/classes/lab2/index.html

http://press.web.cern.ch/pdg/cpep/big_question.html how do atoms/molecules 'stick' together

http://neon.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/AMM/HTML/page01.htm an excellent tutorial with movies & nice graphics

http://chem.lapeer.org/Chem1Docs/ElementQuiz.html online elements quiz

### Is all matter composed of atoms?

As far as experiment has been able to determine, ALL matter is composed of atoms.....

#### Explanation:

And an atom is conceived to consist of a dense nuclear core of massive, positively charged particles, $' p r o \to n s '$, together with numbers of massive, neutrally charged particles, $' \ne u t r o n s '$. The number of $' p r o \to n s '$ give the atomic number, $Z$, which is characteristic for the 100 or so elements: #Z=1,'hydrogen';##Z=2,'helium';##Z=3,'lithium';# .......$Z = 92 , ' u r a n i u m ' .$

Because most matter is electrically neutral, around the nuclear core of an element, there are a number of electrons (equal to $Z$), particles of negligible mass but unit electronic charge (i.e. an electric charge OPPOSITE to the of the proton), that are conceived to whizz about the nuclear core. Sharing and transfer of these electrons between different elements can explain the whole of Chemistry (easy innit?).

### All Matter Is Composed Of Atoms Or Molecules That Have Energy Of Motion

And thus we have rationalized all of chemistry and the existence of the known elements, on the basis of protons and electrons. The nucleus of many atoms also contains a number of massive, neutrally charged particles, $' \ne u t r o n s '$. Neutrons, and protons, AT IMPOSSIBLY SHORT nuclear distances, engage in the strong nuclear force, which at such short ranges is strong enuff to overcome electronic repulsion between like charges. Varying numbers of neutrons within a nucleus gives rise to the existence of isotopes. Most elements have a number of isotopes.

For example, ${'}^{1} H$, ${'}^{2} H$, ${'}^{3} H$, are ALL isotopes of hydrogen because each nuclide contains the ONE PROTON ($Z$ is unequivocally specified by the $H$ symbol). But in ${'}^{2} H$, the nucleus also contains a NEUTRON, and likewise for ${'}^{3} H$, the nucleus contains 2 neutrons.

How do you know the atomic number of each element? Well, for every exam in Chemistry and Physics, you should be supplied with a Periodic Table, which gives $Z$ for all the elements, and also the average atomic mass for each element.

### All Matter Is Composed Of Atoms

If there is an issue, or query, or inconsistency in something I have said, ask away, and someone will help you.

Also see here for more of the same.