Btes Speed Test

BTEC Sport Unit 1- This is the examination unit where you will sit an 1 hour 15 minute onscreen exam. This Exam is out of a total of 60 mark

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Learning aim A: Know about the components of fitness and the principles of training

Components of PHYSICAL fitness:

Components of SKILL RELATED fitness:

Agility: Combination of speed and coordination which allows the body to change direction and body position at speed.

Balance: Ability to maintain a centre of mass over a base support

Coordination: The smooth flow of movement needed to perform a motor task efficiently and accurately

Power: The product of strength and speed

Reaction time: The time taken for a sports performer to respond to a stimulus and the initiation of their response.

Why fitness components are important for successful participation:

  • Being able to successfully meet the physical demands of sport
  • Being able to successfully meet the skill related demands of sport
  • Being able to perform efficiently
  • Able to adapt to different events/positions

EXERCISE INTENSITY and how it can be

assessed-

The average persons HR is between 60-80

beats per minute (bpm)

Training can lower this and athletes can have a much lower bpm.

Heart Rate increases during exercise to allow more oxygen to the muscles

Logo animation premiere pro. How to measure HR:

Gently press two fingers against the pulse and using a stopwatch count the beats. You can count for 30 seconds and then double it or 10 seconds and multiply by 6.

HEART RATE MAX (HR max):

  • This is a measure of the maximum HR your heart can beat at.
  • It is calculated roughly as:

220-Age of Athlete=HR max

so if the person is 19 their HR max will be :

220-19=201 bpm

  • This can then be used to calculate training zones e.g. 70% of HR max:

202/100= 2.02 x 70 = 141.4

  • You would then exercise at 141 bpm, checking your pulse every few minutes with a HR monitor

TARGET HEART RATE:

To improve cardiovascular fitness (endurance) you need to work between 60-85% of your max HR.

So if your max HR is 200bpm you should be working between 120 and 170bpm.

Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)-

This is an estimate to find out how hard an athlete is working on a scale of 6-20.

A Footballer may report an RPE of around 14, whereas an ironman triathlete may record an RPE of 19

RPE x 10 = HR (bpm)

Basic principles of training (FITT):
Frequency: How often you train

Intensity: How hard you train

Time: How long you train

Type: How Long you train for

Additional principles of training:

  • Progressive overload: in order to progress, training needs to be demanding enough to cause the body to adapt, improving performance.
  • Specificity: training should be specific to the individuals sport
  • Individual differences/needs: the programme should be designed to meet individual training goals and needs
  • Adaptation: how the body reacts to training loads by increasing its ability to cope with those loads
  • Reversibility: when training stops training effects are reversed.
  • Variation: it is important to vary the training regime to avoid boredom and maintain enjoyment

Learning aim B: Explore different fitness training methods

Before undertaking a training method session you must consider the following:

  1. Correct and safe use of equipment
  2. Correct and safe technique
  3. Warm up and cool down
  4. Use the FITT for each fitness training method
  5. Training must be appropriate to the physical/skill related component of fitness which needs to be developed

Flexibility training methods:

Flexibility definition – Having an adequate range of motion

in all joints of the body; the ability to move a joint fluidly

through its complete range of movement

Three different types of stretching to improve flexibility:

STATIC DNYNAMIC/BALLISTIC PNF

Static stretching:

This is when an individual holds the position, keeping the body still for the duration of the stretch (5-10 seconds).

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Static stretching is the most often used form of stretching as it is very straightforward and safe. There are two different types of static stretch:

  • Static Active – where the athlete performs the stretch independently by applying internal force to stretch and lengthen the muscle.
  • Static Passive (assisted stretching) – requires the help of another person or object. The assisting person or object applies external force causing the muscle to stretch.

Dynamic/ballistic stretching:

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Involves fast, jerky movements involving the whole range of the joint’s motion.

Usually through swinging, bobbing or bouncing.

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF):

Performed with someone or something to create a resistance.

Stretch to max hold it there (6-10 seconds) relax repeat

Strength, muscular endurance and power training methods:

Three types of training to improve strength, muscular endurance and power-

CIRCUIT TRAINING PLYOMETRICS

Circuit training:

  • This involves a number of Stations
  • The athletes work around these stations
  • Different exercises work different muscle groups
  • Whole Body Workout

Free weights:

  • Use of barbells or dumb-bells
  • Training for strength- low reps and high loads
  • Training for endurance- high reps and low loads

Plyometrics:

  • Plyometrics helps to develop specific power and strength.
  • Often used by sprinters and hurdlers who need to jump and run quickly.
  • Games Players such as basketballers etc also find it useful
  • Plyometric exercises require the athlete to generate maximal force as the muscle lengthens before an immediate maximal force as the muscle shortens.

Aerobic endurance training methods:

Four methods of training to improve aerobic endurance:

Continuous training:

  • Involves exercising at a steady pace at moderate intensity for a minimum of 30mins with no rest.
  • A person who goes running for 45 mins without stopping is performing continuous training.
  • Continuous training is effective but can be boring

Fartlek training:

  • Fartlek is Swedish for ‘Speed Play’
  • It is a form of continuous training where the intensity of training is varied.
  • You can vary the speed, terrain or load you are training at. E.g. Jog –Run-Sprint
  • Fartlek training is more interesting than continuous training

Interval training:

  • Athletes perform a period of work then a period of rest and recovery
  • The work period can last for various lengths of time, usually between 30secs and 5 minutes
  • The rest period can be complete rest, walking or jogging
  • Athletes should work at 60% VO2max to develop aerobic endurance
  • Rest periods should steadily be decreased

Circuit training:

  • The circuit should include exercises that push the body to work in the aerobic fitness zone
  • As with strength the exercises should be ordered correctly in order to avoid too much fatigue.
  • Intensity can be varied by adding stations, length of time working, and rest periods along with the number of times a circuit is performed

Speed training methods:

Three methods of training to improve speed:

  1. Hollow sprints- a series of sprints separated by a ‘hollow’ period of jogging or walking
  2. Acceleration sprints- Pace is gradually increased from a standing or rolling start to jogging, then to striding and then to a max sprint.
  3. Interval training- Work period followed by a rest/recovery period. Performed at high intensity, close to maximum.

Learning aim C: Investigate fitness testing to determine fitness levels

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Fitness test methods for components of fitness:

Sit and reach Grip dynamometer

Illinois agility Vertical jump test

The importance of fitness testing to coaches and athletes

  • Gives coach/performer baseline date for monitoring/improving performance
  • Training sessions can be based around results and data
  • Results can give the performer an aim/goal

Interpreting fitness test results:

How do the results compare to national averages, to their team mates/peers?

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What does their result tell you?

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Can you suggest methods of how to help them improve?