BTEC Sport Unit 1- This is the examination unit where you will sit an 1 hour 15 minute onscreen exam. This Exam is out of a total of 60 mark
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Learning aim A: Know about the components of fitness and the principles of training
Components of PHYSICAL fitness:
Components of SKILL RELATED fitness:
Agility: Combination of speed and coordination which allows the body to change direction and body position at speed.
Balance: Ability to maintain a centre of mass over a base support
Coordination: The smooth flow of movement needed to perform a motor task efficiently and accurately
Power: The product of strength and speed
Reaction time: The time taken for a sports performer to respond to a stimulus and the initiation of their response.
Why fitness components are important for successful participation:
- Being able to successfully meet the physical demands of sport
- Being able to successfully meet the skill related demands of sport
- Being able to perform efficiently
- Able to adapt to different events/positions
EXERCISE INTENSITY and how it can be
The average persons HR is between 60-80
beats per minute (bpm)
Training can lower this and athletes can have a much lower bpm.
Heart Rate increases during exercise to allow more oxygen to the muscles
Logo animation premiere pro. How to measure HR:
Gently press two fingers against the pulse and using a stopwatch count the beats. You can count for 30 seconds and then double it or 10 seconds and multiply by 6.
HEART RATE MAX (HR max):
- This is a measure of the maximum HR your heart can beat at.
- It is calculated roughly as:
220-Age of Athlete=HR max
so if the person is 19 their HR max will be :
- This can then be used to calculate training zones e.g. 70% of HR max:
202/100= 2.02 x 70 = 141.4
- You would then exercise at 141 bpm, checking your pulse every few minutes with a HR monitor
TARGET HEART RATE:
To improve cardiovascular fitness (endurance) you need to work between 60-85% of your max HR.
So if your max HR is 200bpm you should be working between 120 and 170bpm.
Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)-
This is an estimate to find out how hard an athlete is working on a scale of 6-20.
A Footballer may report an RPE of around 14, whereas an ironman triathlete may record an RPE of 19
RPE x 10 = HR (bpm)
Basic principles of training (FITT):
Frequency: How often you train
Intensity: How hard you train
Time: How long you train
Type: How Long you train for
Additional principles of training:
- Progressive overload: in order to progress, training needs to be demanding enough to cause the body to adapt, improving performance.
- Specificity: training should be specific to the individuals sport
- Individual differences/needs: the programme should be designed to meet individual training goals and needs
- Adaptation: how the body reacts to training loads by increasing its ability to cope with those loads
- Reversibility: when training stops training effects are reversed.
- Variation: it is important to vary the training regime to avoid boredom and maintain enjoyment
Learning aim B: Explore different fitness training methods
Before undertaking a training method session you must consider the following:
- Correct and safe use of equipment
- Correct and safe technique
- Warm up and cool down
- Use the FITT for each fitness training method
- Training must be appropriate to the physical/skill related component of fitness which needs to be developed
Flexibility training methods:
Flexibility definition – Having an adequate range of motion
in all joints of the body; the ability to move a joint fluidly
through its complete range of movement
Three different types of stretching to improve flexibility:
STATIC DNYNAMIC/BALLISTIC PNF
This is when an individual holds the position, keeping the body still for the duration of the stretch (5-10 seconds).
Static stretching is the most often used form of stretching as it is very straightforward and safe. There are two different types of static stretch:
- Static Active – where the athlete performs the stretch independently by applying internal force to stretch and lengthen the muscle.
- Static Passive (assisted stretching) – requires the help of another person or object. The assisting person or object applies external force causing the muscle to stretch.
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Involves fast, jerky movements involving the whole range of the joint’s motion.
Usually through swinging, bobbing or bouncing.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF):
Performed with someone or something to create a resistance.
Stretch to max hold it there (6-10 seconds) relax repeat
Strength, muscular endurance and power training methods:
Three types of training to improve strength, muscular endurance and power-
CIRCUIT TRAINING PLYOMETRICS
- This involves a number of Stations
- The athletes work around these stations
- Different exercises work different muscle groups
- Whole Body Workout
- Use of barbells or dumb-bells
- Training for strength- low reps and high loads
- Training for endurance- high reps and low loads
- Plyometrics helps to develop specific power and strength.
- Often used by sprinters and hurdlers who need to jump and run quickly.
- Games Players such as basketballers etc also find it useful
- Plyometric exercises require the athlete to generate maximal force as the muscle lengthens before an immediate maximal force as the muscle shortens.
Aerobic endurance training methods:
Four methods of training to improve aerobic endurance:
- Involves exercising at a steady pace at moderate intensity for a minimum of 30mins with no rest.
- A person who goes running for 45 mins without stopping is performing continuous training.
- Continuous training is effective but can be boring
- Fartlek is Swedish for ‘Speed Play’
- It is a form of continuous training where the intensity of training is varied.
- You can vary the speed, terrain or load you are training at. E.g. Jog –Run-Sprint
- Fartlek training is more interesting than continuous training
- Athletes perform a period of work then a period of rest and recovery
- The work period can last for various lengths of time, usually between 30secs and 5 minutes
- The rest period can be complete rest, walking or jogging
- Athletes should work at 60% VO2max to develop aerobic endurance
- Rest periods should steadily be decreased
- The circuit should include exercises that push the body to work in the aerobic fitness zone
- As with strength the exercises should be ordered correctly in order to avoid too much fatigue.
- Intensity can be varied by adding stations, length of time working, and rest periods along with the number of times a circuit is performed
Speed training methods:
Three methods of training to improve speed:
- Hollow sprints- a series of sprints separated by a ‘hollow’ period of jogging or walking
- Acceleration sprints- Pace is gradually increased from a standing or rolling start to jogging, then to striding and then to a max sprint.
- Interval training- Work period followed by a rest/recovery period. Performed at high intensity, close to maximum.
Learning aim C: Investigate fitness testing to determine fitness levels
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Fitness test methods for components of fitness:
Sit and reach Grip dynamometer
Illinois agility Vertical jump test
The importance of fitness testing to coaches and athletes
- Gives coach/performer baseline date for monitoring/improving performance
- Training sessions can be based around results and data
- Results can give the performer an aim/goal
Interpreting fitness test results:
How do the results compare to national averages, to their team mates/peers?
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What does their result tell you?
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Can you suggest methods of how to help them improve?