Subaru Transmission

Subaru motor vehicles have used manual, conventional automatic, and continuously variable (CVT) transmissions. Subaru manufactures its own manual and CVT transmissions (for non-Kei cars). Since the 1970s, all Subaru conventional automatic transmissions have been Jatco designs adapted to Subaru specifications.[citation needed] Since the 2014 model year, the conventional automatic transmissions in North American-spec Subaru vehicles have been replaced with Lineartronic CVTs (with some exceptions such as Outbacks with the 3.6 liter engine).

Automatic[edit]

Three-speed[edit]

All of Subaru's three speed automatic transmissions were made by Jatco.

3AT[edit]

  • Subaru automatic transmissions have a very aggressive 'power' mode that helps the car to perform better with acceleration. This 'power' mode delays drive engagement, raises shift points and shift firmness, and often makes downshifts a jerky and uncomfortable affair.
  • Used JDM Subaru 2009-2012 CVT TR690JDKAA Transmission. Item ID 5971 Model(s) Legacy / Outback CVT $ 1,200 USD $ 1,700 USD.
  • The Continuously Variable Transmission Smoother performance. Greater efficiency. You can have both with Lineartronic ® CVT. This innovative transmission technology, now available on the redesigned 2010 Outback and Legacy, has been engineered to function perfectly with the SUBARU BOXER ® engine and Subaru Symmetrical All-Wheel Drive. What's more, its design is lightweight to help keep the.
  • Gear Ratios: 1st 2.600 2nd 1.505 3rd 1.000 Rev 4.100
  • Usage: 1975–1979 Subaru Leone

3AT 1st revision[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 2.600 2nd 1.505 3rd 1.000 Rev 2.166
  • Usage: 1980–1982 Subaru Leone

3AT[edit]

Subaru automatic transmissions have a very aggressive 'power' mode that helps the car to perform better with acceleration. This 'power' mode delays drive engagement, raises shift points and shift firmness, and often makes downshifts a jerky and uncomfortable affair.

The 3AT was a hydraulically controlled 3AT with available Single-Range 4WD.

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 2.821 2nd 1.559 3rd 1.000 Rev 2.257
  • Usage: 1983–1984,1990-1994 Subaru Leone 1985–1989 Subaru XT and Subaru BRAT

Four-speed[edit]

Subaru built their own four-speed automatic transmission based on the old Jatco design. It was available in FWD and Full-time awd.

Subaru Transmission Problems

ACT-4 or VTD[edit]

Subaru uses two types of traction delivery systems, called Active Torque Split, or the performance oriented Variable Torque Distribution, called VTD. Active Torque Split drives the front wheels directly and the rear wheels through a hydraulic clutch. The control unit monitors several factors including vehicle speed, gear position, and wheel speed and then varies the application of the clutch based on a model stored in memory. The effect is a constantly and actively changing torque to the rear wheels anywhere from a few percent to fully locked. The control unit can and does alter torque several times per second. Vehicles with higher power engines use a more aggressive model resulting in generally higher rear engagement. Later attempts at reducing customer confusion resulted in torque split numbers being given, but these have no meaning as there is no mechanical or other device to provide a static starting point for the control unit. This system is the more commonly used setup used on most Subaru products after its introduction on the XT6. VTD adds a twin planetary center differential to the clutch and therefore has a static, starting torque split calculated on the planetary gear ratio, with the most common being 45:55. The active clutch operation is similar to the ACT system, although the clutch is used to suppress differential action instead of as the differential itself. VTD was introduced on the Alcyone SVX in 1991 and is usually found in performance models equipped with a turbocharger, along with the VDC outback. Active Torque Split and VTD are found in both generations of the 4 speed while the 5 speed uses only VTD.

4EAT[edit]

This transmission was released in 1988 for use in the Subaru XT6 and Leone Touring Wagon. The bellhousing and input shaft were changed for the Subaru EJ engine, the first generation was used until about 1998, when a major redesign of the holding devices was released. The second generation saw use until 2008.

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 2.785 2nd 1.545 3rd 1.000 4th 0.694 Rev 2.272
  • Some versions had gear ratios of 1st 3.030 2nd 1.620 3rd 1.000 4th 0.694 Rev 2.272
  • Usage: 1988–1991 Subaru XT, 1990–2004 Subaru Legacy, 1992–1997 Subaru Alcyone SVX, and all Subarus 1995–2009

The Ford Motor Company also uses a transmission on some Ford, Kia Motors, Mercury, and Mazda products called the F-4EAT, which shares some similarities with the Subaru, since they are both manufactured by Jatco.[citation needed] The Nissan Pathfinder has also used this transmission in the past with an external transfer case attached.

Five-speed[edit]

Subaru released the 5EAT w/ SportShift in 2003 based on the Jatco JR505 transmission.[citation needed]

5EAT[edit]

  • Gear Ratios:

1st 3.5402nd 2.2643rd 1.4714th 1.0005th 0.834Rev 2.370

  • Usage: 2005+ Subaru Legacy and 3.0R; Subaru Outback XT, 3.0R, and 3.6R; Subaru Tribeca

Forester s-edition

Six-speed[edit]

Subaru made a one off paddle-shift AWD transmission for their B11S Concept car built off the 5EAT platform.

6EATT[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 2.264 3rd 1.471 4th 1.000 5th 0.834 6th 0.700 Rev 3.272
  • Usage: B11S Concept Car Only

A960E[edit]

Subaru Transmission

Manufactured by Aisin/Toyota.

  • Gear Ratios:

1st 3.5382nd 2.0603rd 1.4044th 1.0005th 0.7136th 0.582Rev 3.168

  • Usage: 2012+ Subaru BRZ

Continuously variable[edit]

1989–1994 Subaru Justy ECVT/Justy 4WD ECVT[edit]

Subaru developed a CVT for the Subaru Justy to gain reasonable acceleration and fuel economy from its small three cylinder engine. It employs a push-belt system and comes with an optional 4WD unit that engages the rear wheels when a button on the shifter is depressed. It also has a 'sport mode' that when activated nearly doubles engine RPM for better torque distribution when towing or going uphill. The Shift Indicator reads P-R-N-D-Ds, Ds stands for Drive Sport, which doubles engine RPM. The CVT transmission proved unreliable after accumulating high mileage, causing Subaru to stop exporting cars with CVTs to North America until the fifth generation Legacy/Outback. Subaru did continue to build Kei cars with CVTs, only for sale in Japan. In addition to improving the design of the transmission over the years, Subaru has supplied other companies with CVTs, as well. The Justy ECVT was also available with hydraulically actuated 4WD (unlike the 5MT Justy, which has pneumatic actuation) in November 1988, this model was called the Justy 4WD ECVT.

  • Gear Ratios: Infinite
  • Usage: 1989–1994 Subaru Justy

Subaru Lineartronic CVT TR690 and TR580[edit]

Lineartronic CVT transmission

The fifth generation Legacy/Outback and the JDMSubaru Exiga received a newly revised CVT under the Lineartronic name. It is a metal chain, pulley-based CVT, which is considered the most reliable, due to the simplicity of the pulley system and durability of the metal chain. In addition, the metal chain pulley system is generally quieter than other CVT designs.

In the US, the Lineartronic is available with the 2.5i engine in the Outback, Legacy and Forester(2014), and the 2.0 FB engine in the Impreza and slightly modified for the XV Crosstrek. In SE Asia this transmission is also available for the 2.0i engine for the 2010 and later Legacy Legacy Asia spec. Subaru claims that the transmission provides 'uninterrupted power that maximizes fuel efficiency while keeping the engine at the optimal rev range'. EPA mileage estimates for the CVT with the 2.5i, naturally aspirated based engine, claim 30 MPG highway (29 Outback, 31 Legacy).[1]

Lineartronic uses a specially modified torque converter to connect the engine to the transmission. It can slip like a traditional torque converter, but remains locked under all conditions except when coasting or traveling at very low speed. The persistent lockup condition under acceleration provides the efficiency and control of a clutch while still behaving much like a traditional planetary automatic transmission. The transmission can also be manually controlled by the driver by providing the ability to select 6 or 7 (if paired with a Diesel engine[2]) or 8 different 'virtual' gears, where the transmission will hold a particular ratio.

  • Gear Ratios: 6.32:1
  • Usage: 2010–current Subaru Legacy / Outback / Exiga / Impreza / Levorg / Forester / XV and 2015 Subaru WRX Premium and Limited Editions.

TR580

  • 2013-2020 Legacy/Outback 2.5L NA
  • 2012-2020 Impreza 2.0L NA
  • 2013-2020 Crosstrek 2.0L NA
  • 2014-2020 Forester 2.5L NA

Maximum torque 250Nm

TR690

  • 2010-2012 Legacy/Outback 2.5L NA
  • 2015-2019 Legacy/Outback 3.6L NA
  • 2014-2020 Forester 2.0L Turbo
  • 2015-2020 WRX 2.0L Turbo
  • 2019-2020 Ascent
  • 2020 Legacy/Outback 2.4L Turbo

Maximum torque 400Nm

Manual[edit]

Four-speed[edit]

Subaru made several four speed transmissions from 1970–1989, they are listed below.

T71[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.307 2nd 1.944 3rd 1.344 4th 0.942 Rev 4.100
  • Usage: All 1970–1982 FWD

T71A 1st revision[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.193 4th 0.769 Rev 3.583
  • Usage: All 1983–1989 Subaru Leone FWD 1600cc

T71W 4WD[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 4.090 2nd 2.157 3rd 1.379 4th .971 Rev 4.100, Low Range 1.462
  • Usage: 1975–1980 Subaru Leone and 1978–1981 Subaru BRAT

T71W 4WD 1st revision[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.666 2nd 2.157 3rd 1.266 4th .885 Rev 4.100, Low Range 1.462
  • Usage: 1981 Subaru Leone 1600cc

T81W 4WD[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.266 4th .885 Rev 3.583, Low Range 1.462
  • Usage: 1981 Subaru Leone 1800cc

T81W 4WD 1st revision[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.193 4th .769 Rev 3.583, Low Range 1.462
  • Usage: 1982–1989 Subaru Leone 1800cc and 1982–1993 Subaru BRAT (EA-81 engine only)

Five-speed[edit]

T71G[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.666 2nd 2.157 3rd 1.266 4th .885 5th .725, Rev 4.100
  • Usage: 1975–1982 Subaru Leone

T71G[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 2.157 3rd 1.266 4th .885 5th .725, Rev 3.583
  • Usage: 1983–1989 Subaru Leone 1600cc

T81G[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.371 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.266 4th .885 5th .725, Rev 3.583
  • Usage: 1983–1989 Subaru Leone 1800cc (EA-81 Engine ONLY)!

5MT EA[edit]

1st 3.636 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.344 4th .971 5th .783, Rev 3.583

Artifact garden planner

  • Usage: 1985–1994 Subaru Leone

5MT[edit]

This was the only five-speed 4WD transmission made for the Subaru Leone

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.545 2nd 1.947 3rd 1.366 4th .972 5th .780, Rev 3.416 Low Range 1.59
  • Usage: 1985–1994 Subaru Leone and 1985–1989 Subaru XT 1800cc

5MT full-time[edit]

This transmission was Subaru's first full-time 4WD transmission, only used in the Alcyone/XT6, and 3 door RX. In EU Leone turbo wagon.

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.545 2nd 2.111 3rd 1.448 4th 1.088 5th .871, Rev 3.416 Low Range 1.196
  • Usage: 1988–1991 Subaru XT-6

5MT Justy[edit]

The Justy used a transaxle, rather than a conventional Subaru transmission. This transmission was dropped in 1994 when you could only get a 4WD unit.

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.071 2nd 1.695 3rd 1.137 4th .823 5th .675, Rev 3.461 Final 4.437
  • Usage: 1984–1993 Subaru Justy

5MT Justy 4WD[edit]

After its introduction in 1984, the Justy was also available with 4WD and thus a different gearbox. The gear ratios for this gearbox were altered slightly. In 1994 the normal/FWD gearbox was dropped; one could only get a 4WD gearbox by then.

  • Gear ratios: 1st 3.071 2nd 1.695 3rd 1.137 4th .771 5th .631, Rev 3.461 Final 5.200
  • Usage: 1984–1994 Subaru Justy

5MT[edit]

It is notable to mention that only Turbo vehicles received a hydraulic clutch until 1995. Also, in 1998 Subaru changed from a push-style clutch to a pull-style, on turbo models, requiring minor bellhousing and fork changes.

Subaru Outback Transmission

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.785 2nd 1.945 3rd 1.500 4th 0.994 5th 0.780/(0.735 WRX) – Final 4.11 (3.90 WRX)
  • Usage: All 1990–2003 with EJ-Engine

MY 96-99 Transmission specs (and possibly other years)

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.545 2nd 2.111 3rd 1.448 4th 1.088 5th 0.825 (FWD) / 0.780 (AWD) / 0.871 (Outback AWD) --- Final 3.454 (FWD) / 3.900 (AWD) / 4.111 (Forester, Outback AWD)

Source: 1996 Subaru Legacy Service Manual/1999 Subaru Forester Service Manual

Also matches 1999 Legacy 30th Anniversary[3][4]

5MT revised[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.454 2nd 2.062 3rd 1.448 4th 1.088 5th 0.871 Rev 3.545

different ratios for 2006-07

  • Usage: All 2003–2011 Subaru Non-Turbo

5MT revised 2012+[edit]

  • Gear Ratios: 1st 3.454 2nd 1.888 3rd 1.296 4th 0.972 5th 0.738 Rev 3.333 Final 4.111
  • Usage: All 2012-Present Subaru Non-Turbo

Six-speed[edit]

SJ Forester 2.5i[edit]

1st 3.4542nd 1.8883rd 1.2964th 0.9725th 0.7806th 0.695R 3.686Final 4.444:1[5]

SJ Forester 2.5i, Impreza WRX STi and Legacy spec. B[edit]

There are several six speed manual transmissions currently available for USDM Subarus, found in the STi, Legacy Spec B, and 2015 WRX. The STi's 6MT has undergone various changes throughout the years, but have always had a limited slip front differential with Driver Controlled Center Differential (DCCD). In 2006, The STi's 6MT underwent some changes that included making the center differential a limited slip unit and a slight lengthening of some gears. The Spec. B's 6MT has different gear ratios (specifically 6th gear being longer) than the STi's unit, does not have DCCD, and neither the front nor center differentials are limited slip units. The Spec B's 6MT ratios are highly prized by some due to its longer ratios than those found in the WRX STi, while still retaining much of the STi unit's robustness.

  • Gear Ratios : 1st 3.636 2nd 2.375 (or 2.235) 3rd 1.761 (or 1.590) 4th 1.346 (or 1.137) 5th 0.971 (or 0.891) 6th 0.756 (or 0.707) Rev 3.545 (This only applies to either the 04-05 STi or the 06+ STi, not both, and not the Spec B.).
  • Usage: 2004+ Subaru WRX STi and 2005+ Subaru Legacy spec. B
  • Early 2004 WRX STi models came with axle stubs inserted in the transmission with female front axles. Late 2004 WRX STi models came without the stubs and instead had male front axles.
  • The 2004 and 2005 model WRX STi 6MT was a final drive of 3.90. In 2006 and 2007 the 6MT came with a final drive of 3.545 which made the 2006 and 2007 much sought after for the non-STi WRX owners as a transmission swap. This is due to the R160 rear differential 3.545 final drive of most of the non-STi WRXs.
  • Pre 2008 model year WRX STi 6MT versions utilizes a self-contained oil system with a trochoidal oil pump mounted in the rear of the transmission case. This capability was removed for 2008 and later years as Subaru elected to for a simplified splash/scraper lubrication system. However, the oil pump-equipped 6MT version is still listed as the transmission of choice in the STi Group N parts system, even for the 2015+ model year WRX STi, with the option of mounting a homologated transmission oil cooler. Subaru Tecnica International's choice to continue using the oil pump-equipped 6MT for Group N racing, originally for the 2007 model years and older, led to the assessment that oil pump transmissions are still favored for motorsport/heavy duty applications. As such, 2008+ WRX STi 6MT with the splash/scraper oil system is a byproduct of a cost-saving measure from Subaru, which may have determined an intricate lubrication system was not necessary for a showroom/production vehicle until it would be converted for motorsport use. [6]
Model1st2nd3rd4th5th6thReverseFinal DriveDCCDFront DiffCenter DiffRear Diff
Impreza WRX STi MY01-04 TY856WH3MA3,6362,3751,7611,3460,9710,7563,5453,90035/65A.P. SuretracViscous Coupling (DCCD system MY03 onwards)Viscous LSD
Impreza WRX STi MY01-04 TY856WH4MA3,6362,3751,7611,3460,9710,7563,5453,90035/65A.P. Suretracautomatic electromechanical DCCD systemViscous LSD
Impreza WRX STi MY05-07 TY856WW6MA3,6362,3751,7611,3460,9710,7563,5453,90035/65Helical LSDautomatic electromechanical DCCD systemViscous LSD
WRX STi MY08-14 TY856UB1KA3,6362,2351,5901,1370,8910,7073,5453,90041/59Helical LSDelectronic (08-16 electromechanical) DCCD systemTorsen LSD
WRX STi MY15-18 TY856UW6AA3,6362,2351,5211,1370,9710,7563,5453,90041/59Helical LSDelectronic (08-16 electromechanical) DCCD systemTorsen LSD
WRX STi MY19-present TY856UW6AB3,6362,2351,5901,1370,9710,7563,5453,90041/59Helical LSDelectronic (08-16 electromechanical) DCCD systemTorsen LSD
SJ Forester 2.5i 2014-20183.4541.8881.2960.9720.7800.6953.6864.444:150/50viscous couplingnoneviscous coupling

BM/BR Legacy/Outback[edit]

The 2010-2014 Legacy and Outback models offer a six-speed manual as one of the two transmission options in the base 2.5i and 2.5i Premium and is the only option for the Legacy GT model. This transmission is an evolution of the 5MT split-case design, and does not share any parts with the STI's 6MT transmission. The transmission uses a cable shifter, unlike previous designs that use a direct mechanical linkage.

Legacy 2.5 GT Gear Ratios: 1st: 3.454, 2nd: 1.947, 3rd: 1.296, 4th: 0.972, 5th: 0.780, 6th: 0.666, Rev.: 3.636, Final Drive: 4.111
Legacy 2.5 NA Gear Ratios: 1st: 3.454, 2nd: 1.947, 3rd: 1.296, 4th: 0.972, 5th: 0.825, 6th: 0.695, Rev.: 3.636, Final Drive: 4.111
Outback 2.5 NA Gear Ratios: 1st: 3.454, 2nd: 1.947, 3rd: 1.296, 4th: 0.972, 5th: 0.825, 6th: 0.695, Rev.: 3.636, Final Drive: 4.444[7]

2015 WRX[edit]

The 2015 WRX has a new 6-speed cable-shifted manual transmission behind the new FA20DIT boxer engine. This transmission uses a viscous limited slip center differential with a 50/50 torque split similar to the 5MT found in previous WRX's. Reverse is located to the right of 6th gear, and is accessed by lifting a lockout ring below the shift knob, similar to the STi 6MT.

Like the Legacy/Outback, the WRX 6MT is of a split-case design similar to the older 5MT and does not share any internal commonality with the WRX STi 6MT.

Gear Ratios are:1st: 3.4542nd: 1.9473rd: 1.2964th: 0.9725th: 0.7806th: 0.666Reverse: 3.636Final Drive: 4.111 (model TY751VB6CA) or 4.44

2018 Crosstrek[edit]

Gear Ratios are: 1st 3.8182nd 1.9473rd 1.2964th 1.0295th 0.8256th 0.738Final Drive 4.44:1

Notes[edit]

  1. ^http://www.subaru.com/engineering/transmission.html
  2. ^http://sgws.subaru.no/2015_outback_spesifikasjon.html?ref=1453239236.122
  3. ^'Subaru Transmission Chart'(PDF).
  4. ^'Relative measurement of 1999 Legacy Gear Ratios'.
  5. ^http://www.cars101.com/subaru/forester/forester2016.html
  6. ^https://www.sti.jp/en/competitor/n_parts/partslist.html
  7. ^'Transmission Chart'(PDF). Rallispec. Retrieved 15 June 2020.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

Sources[edit]

  • 'Subaru Transmission Specs'. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • 1977 Subaru Factory Service Manual
  • 1983 Subaru Factory Service Manual
  • 1984 Subaru Factory Service Manual
  • 1979–2002 Subaru Owner's Manuals
  • 'Rallispec LTD. – Subaru Gearbox Chart'. Sports Performance Drivers Association. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2009.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

(http://www.vdi-wissensforum.de. Enhanced performance of next generation LINEARTRONIC.

See also[edit]

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