Ti Element

Element Titanium - Ti

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Titanium is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Titanium. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

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Element Copper - Copper Atom. Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Sometimes called the 'space age metal', 2 it has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including sea water, aqua regia and chlorine) transition metal with a silver color. The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species TiTi is 141.4 ±21 kJ mol -1. Titanium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid.

Element Titanium (Ti), Group 4, Atomic Number 22, d-block, Mass 47.867. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and images. Ti powder sintered filter cartridge element with excellent chemical compatibility for filtration of strong corrosive solvents Shijiazhuang Yitong Filter Machinery Co.

Overview of Titanium

  • Atomic Number: 22
  • Group: 4
  • Period: 4
  • Series: Transition Metals

Titanium's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Titanium
  • Czech: Titan
  • Croatian: Titanij
  • French: Titane
  • German: Titan - r
  • Italian: Titanio
  • Norwegian: Titan
  • Portuguese: Titânio
  • Russian: Титан
  • Spanish: Titanio
  • Swedish: Titan

Atomic Structure of Titanium

  • Atomic Radius:
  • Atomic Volume: 10.64cm3/mol
  • Covalent Radius: 1.32Å
  • Cross Section (Thermal Neutron Capture) σa/barns: 6.09
  • Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
  • Electron Configuration:
    1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d2 4s2
  • Electrons per Energy Level: 2,8,10,2
    Shell Model
  • Ionic Radius: 0.605Å
  • Filling Orbital: 3d2
  • Number of Electrons (with no charge): 22
  • Number of Neutrons (most common/stable nuclide): 26
  • Number of Protons: 22
  • Oxidation States: 4
  • Valence Electrons: 3d2 4s2
    Electron Dot Model

Chemical Properties of Titanium

  • Electrochemical Equivalent: 0.4468g/amp-hr
  • Electron Work Function: 4.33eV
  • Electronegativity: 1.54 (Pauling); 1.32 (Allrod Rochow)
  • Heat of Fusion: 15.45kJ/mol
  • Incompatibilities:
  • Ionization Potential
    • First: 6.82
    • Second: 13.58
    • Third: 27.491
  • Valence Electron Potential (-eV): 95.2

Physical Properties of Titanium

  • Atomic Mass Average: 47.88
  • Boiling Point: 3560K 3287°C 5949°F
  • Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 8.35E-6
  • Conductivity
    Electrical: 0.0234 106/cm Ω
    Thermal: 0.219 W/cmK
  • Density: 4.54g/cc @ 300K
  • Description:
    Pure titanium is a lustrous white metal, as strong as steel, 45% lighter than steel and 60% heavier than aluminum.
  • Elastic Modulus:
    • Bulk: 108.4/GPa
    • Rigidity: 45.6/GPa
    • Youngs: 120.2/GPa
  • Enthalpy of Atomization: 468.6 kJ/mole @ 25°C
  • Enthalpy of Fusion: 15.48 kJ/mole
  • Enthalpy of Vaporization: 429 kJ/mole
  • Flammablity Class:
  • Freezing Point:see melting point
  • Hardness Scale
    • Brinell: 716 MN m-2
    • Mohs: 6
    • Vickers: 970 MN m-2
  • Heat of Vaporization: 421kJ/mol
  • Melting Point: 1933K 1660°C 3020°F
  • Molar Volume: 10.64 cm3/mole
  • Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid
  • Specific Heat: 0.52J/gK
  • Vapor Pressure = [email protected]°C

Regulatory / Health

  • CAS Number
    • 7440-32-6
  • OSHAPermissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • NIOSHRecommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • No limits set by NIOSH
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: 0.054
    • Bone/p.p.m: n/a
    • Liver/p.p.m: 1.2-4.7
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 0.9-2.2
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 0.8 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 20 mg
  • Discovery Year: 1791
  • Name Origin:
    Greek mythology: titanos (Titans), the sons of the Earth goddess.
  • Abundance of Titanium:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 5600
    • Seawater/p.p.m.: 0.00048
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 112000
  • Sources of Titanium:
    Usually occurs in the minerals ilmenite (FeTiO3) or rutile (TiO2). Also in Titaniferous magnetite, titanite (CaTiSiO5), and iron ores. Annually world wide production is around 99,000 tons. Primary mining areas are Norway, India, Brazil, canada, USA, Russia.
  • Uses of Titanium:
    Since it is strong and resists acids it is used in many alloys. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a white pigment that covers surfaces very well, is used in paint, rubber, paper and many other materials. Also used in heat exchangers, airplane motors, bone pins and other things requiring light weight metals or metals that resist corrosion or high temperatures. Titanium oxide is used extensively in paints.
  • Additional Notes:
    Titanium is Latin and refers to the Titans, the first sons of the earth in Mythology. It was discovered by Gregor in 1791, then independantly discovered by M.H. Klaproth in 1795 in Berlin Germany. This element was named by Klaproth. It was nearly a hundred years later (1887) when impure titanium was first prepared by Nilson and Pettersson. About 20 years later Hunter heated Titanium Chloride TiCl4 with sodium in a steel bomb and isolated 99.6% pure titanium. It is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and is also found in meteorites and in the sun. It is found in the ash of coal, in plants and even in the human body. It occurs in the minerals rutile, ilmenite and sphene.

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References

A list of reference sources used to compile the data provided on our periodic table of elements can be found on the main periodic table page.

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    Molar mass calculations are explained and there is a JavaScript calculator to aid calculations.
  • Chemical Database
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Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Sometimes called the 'space age metal',[2] it has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including sea water, aqua regia and chlorine) transition metal with a silver color.

Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, England, by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology.

The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils.[3] The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process[4] or the Hunter process. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments.[5] Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.[3]

Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.[3]

The two most useful properties of the metal form are corrosion resistance and the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal.[6] In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but 45% lighter.[7] There are two allotropic forms[8] and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).[9] Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium, because both of them have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table.

Characteristics

Physical properties

A metallic element, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio.[8] It is a strong metal with low density that is quite ductile (especially in an oxygen-free environment),[3] lustrous, and metallic-white in color.[10] The relatively high melting point (more than 1,650 °C or 3,000 °F) makes it useful as a refractory metal. It is paramagnetic and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity.[3]

Commercial (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 63,000 psi (434 MPa), equal to that of common, low-grade steel alloys, but are 45% lighter.[7] Titanium is 60% more dense than aluminium, but more than twice as strong[7] as the most commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Certain titanium alloys (e.g., Beta C) achieve tensile strengths of over 200,000 psi (1,400 MPa).[11] However, titanium loses strength when heated above 430 °C (806 °F).[12]

It is fairly hard (although not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel), non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Machining requires precautions, as the material will soften and gall if sharp tools and proper cooling methods are not used. Like those made from steel, titanium structures have a fatigue limit which guarantees longevity in some applications.[10] Titanium alloys specific stiffnesses are also usually not as good as other materials such as aluminium alloys and carbon fiber, so it is used less for structures which require high rigidity.

The metal is a dimorphic allotrope whose hexagonal alpha form changes into a body-centered cubic (lattice) β form at 882 °C (1,620 °F).[12] The specific heat of the alpha form increases dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but then falls and remains fairly constant for the β form regardless of temperature.[12] Similar to zirconium and hafnium, an additional omega phase exists, which is thermodynamically stable at high pressures, but is metastable at ambient pressures. This phase is usually hexagonal (ideal) or trigonal (distorted) and can be viewed as being due to a soft longitudinal acoustic phonon of the β phase causing collapse of (111) planes of atoms.[13]

References

Table Of Elements

  1. Andersson, N. et al. (2003). 'Emission spectra of TiH and TiD near 938 nm'. J. Chem. Phys.118: 10543. doi:10.1063/1.1539848. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/257.pdf.
  2. William L. Masterton; Cecile N. Hurley (2008). Chemistry: Principles and Reactions (6th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 18. ISBN0495126713. http://books.google.com/?id=teubNK-b2bsC&pg=PT44&lpg=PT44&dq=titanium+%22space-age+metal%22&q=titanium%20%22space-age%20metal%22.
  3. 'Titanium'. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9072643/titanium. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  4. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.), Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, ISBN0-8493-0486-5
  5. Krebs, Robert E. (2006). The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (2nd edition). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN0313334382.
  6. Matthew J. Donachie, Jr. (1988). TITANIUM: A Technical Guide. Metals Park, OH: ASM International. p. 11. ISBN0871703092.
  7. Barksdale 1968, p. 738
  8. 'Titanium'. Columbia Encyclopedia (6th edition ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. 2000–2006. ISBN 0-7876-5015-3. http://www.answers.com/Titanium.
  9. Barbalace, Kenneth L. (2006). 'Periodic Table of Elements: Ti - Titanium'. http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Ti-pg2.html#Nuclides. Retrieved 2006-12-26.
  10. Stwertka, Albert (1998). 'Titanium'. Guide to the Elements (Revised ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 81–82. ISBN0-19-508083-1.
  11. Matthew J. Donachie, Jr. (1988). Titanium: A Technical Guide. Metals Park, OH: ASM International. Appendix J, Table J.2. ISBN0871703092.
  12. Barksdale 1968, p. 734
  13. Sikka, S. K.; Vohra, Y. K., Chidambaram, R. (1982). 'Omega phase in materials'. Progress in Materials Science27: 245–310. doi:10.1016/0079-6425(82)90002-0.